27S THE GVAilAB TEMPLES. two The explanation is obvious. In earlier days, when large blocks of stone were difficult to procure,, there was also kek of sufficient arc to con- ceal the onaFoidable join in the structure. In course of time the eye became accustomed to the defect^ aad eventually required its apparent introduction even where it did not really exist A similar conservatism may be traced in the art Mstory of every nation, and more especially in religions art* In breaking up Ms columns into two pieces^ and thus perpettiatingj as a decora- iioQj what in its origin had been a signal defectj the Hindu architect was unconsciously ittlueneed by the same motive as the Greek? who to the very last continued to introduce^ as prominent features in his temple facades,, the metopes aad fcriglyphs which had "been necessities in the days of woodea con- struction, bat had become unmeaning when repeated in stone. The two ancient Brahmanicai temples on the Gwaliar rock, commonly known as the Sas Bahn, illustrate still more remarkably tlmis the Noh-jhil dar- gali the way in which what was ongmally a eonstmetnrsl make-shift has subse- quently beea adopted as a permanent arehitectural feature. In the larger of these two buildings the interior of the spacious nave is disfigured by four enor- mous colamaSj which occupy a square in the centre of the area and obstruct the view in every direction. It is evident at a glance that, though the work of the tome architect as the rest of the fabric, they are. utterly out of harmony with Ms first design. Necessity alone can have compelled him to introduce them as props for a falling roof; while the sliallowness and unfinished state of their sur- face sculpture farther suggest that they were erected in great haste in order to avert a catastrophe which appeared imminent. They were as little contemplated at the outset as the inverted arches in Wells Cathedral, or as the rude struts in- serted by General Cunningham in this very same building to support the broken architraves of the upper story. In the smaller temple^ which is of somewhat later, date, the internal arrangement follows precisely the same lines, though acre die lesser span of the roof rendered the detached pillars unnecessary,, the massive walls being quite sufficient by themselves to support the small Hat doiae an»l :lw low tower that snnnonnte! it. The central columns, however, are h*1*** *.; vtiarically treated^ and are in saeh excellent proportion to the other parts of t'i'j uuiUmg, having been designed with them and not subsequently intrad^L . ;v -A tuey are really decorative smd add beauty to the interior. Bo I'll :• -si :emples, like that of 'GoMnd Deva at Brinda-ban, to which they a :r;, :t • livable and interesting complement, originally consisted of three r r^i v.,' •? -u fact which has not been previously noticed by any archaeologist.